Why It Takes So Long to Identify Ankylosing Spondylitis

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Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American College of Rheumatology member.

David Borenstein, MD, scientific teacher of medication, George Washington University Medical Center; partner, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; managing editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Medical diagnosis and differential medical diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in grownups,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”

National Health Service (U.K.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

Spondylitis Association of America: “Medical Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Existing Rheumatology Reports: “Gender Distinctions in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Women Are Not So Fortunate.”

Stanford Health Care: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis detected?”

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