Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American College of Rheumatology member.
David Borenstein, MD, scientific teacher of medication, George Washington University Medical Center; partner, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; managing editor, spinecommunity.com.
UpToDate: “Medical diagnosis and differential medical diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in grownups,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”
National Health Service (U.K.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”
Spondylitis Association of America: “Medical Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”
Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”
Existing Rheumatology Reports: “Gender Distinctions in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Women Are Not So Fortunate.”
Stanford Health Care: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis detected?”